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Aquatic Resource Initiatives

Programs Overview       Science       Education


WLI takes on special projects based on the recommendations of the community and the need for scientific information. Since 2005, we have conducted research for special projects on Whitefish Lake, Tally Lake, Swan Lake, and Blanchard Lake. This work is typically funded by research grants or through programmatic partnerships.

AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES

                  Media Release | Fact Sheet | Full Report

What are Aquatic Invasive Species?
Aquatic invasive species (AIS) are non-native plants and animals that impact water bodies and wetlands. They are species for which a local ecosystem’s native species have no defense mechanisms or for which they cannot compete against for food and shelter. They may start as a nuisance, but can have disastrous long-term effects. AIS can be transported on any type of watercraft, trailers, and angler’s bait buckets or equipment. Some AIS can find their way into interior compartments and watercraft ballasts, and others can “hitchhike” from one water body to another by attaching themselves to surfaces. All AIS are of concern for Montana waterways, but with zebra mussels now in Montana, they pose the greatest current threat.
 
Once established, AIS can destroy waterways. Invasive mussels, for instance, reproduce so rapidly that their sharp shells blanket shorelines so that footwear must be worn to walk the area. They attach themselves to water circulation systems on watercraft, overheating and destroying motors. Decaying mussels also release an unpleasant odor that permeates the air and water. They reproduce rapidly adhering to any stable surface. If established on water intake pipes, they can cause system failures and expensive clean-ups. How bad are they? In the United States, zebra mussels have cost the power industry over $3 billion between1993–1999, impacting industries, businesses, and communities for over $5 billion. Although mussels tend to dominate the news, additional threats come from a variety of invasive plants, fish, and pathogens. 

History has shown us that zebra mussels quickly clog water intake pipes, impact hydroelectric facilities, and their sharp shells compromise recreational pursuits. Their voluminous filter feeding dramatically alters the food web and overtime degrades water quality. A zebra mussel infestation in Whitefish Lake could result in the City’s drinking water intake pipe in becoming plugged with mussels. The water cooling system in our boat motors could become encrusted with mussels. They could spread across our docks, and our children’s feet could be cut as they wade barefoot into the lake.  Our lake fishery and overall water quality could forever be changed. All of these things would cause indirect consequences to small businesses in Whitefish due to boating and recreation restrictions or closures. And there would be a great loss in property value to homeowners on and near the lake. These are but a few of the numerous consequences of AIS infestations we’ve seen throughout the U.S.

Invasive Mussels in Montana

Until recently, Montana was one of a few remaining western states void of invasive mussels. But in early November 2016, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) reported that Tiber Reservoir, east of Shelby, Montana tested positive for zebra mussels. They also reported that Canyon Ferry near Helena had suspect results. Since that time, additional samples from the Milk River downstream of Nelson Reservoir and the Missouri River upstream of Townsend also returned suspect results.

On November 30th, 2016 Governor Bullock issued an executive order declaring a statewide natural resource emergency that included the deployment of an interagency rapid response team to tackle the emerging issue. On December 1st, 2016 the state took further action by issuing emergency orders restricting the launch and removal of boats from Tiber Reservoir and Canyon Ferry. Glacier National Park and the Blackfeet Indian Reservation placed moratorium closures to boating, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service closed Jessup Mill Pond outside of Creston in response to the zebra mussel threat. 2017 ushered in a new paradigm for the public’s interaction with Montana waters. We must all now take an active role in this issue by spreading the word, talking to our elected officials, and supporting local and statewide AIS prevention efforts. 

What is Whitefish Doing to Protect Whitefish Lake?

In 2017, the City of Whitefish, Montana State Parks and WLI partnered to bring the robust Our Lake, Our Future: Whitefish Lake Aquatic Invasive Species Management Program to fruition. The goal of this program is to safeguard Whitefish Lake and downstream water resources from the introduction of AIS. The clean and healthy water of Whitefish Lake provides many recreational opportunities such as swimming, boating, and fishing; and serves as a drinking water supply for the City of Whitefish during part of the year. It also imparts extensive economic value to the entire community of and surrounding Whitefish, creating an attractive place to live, work, and recreate. 

History of AIS Programming in Whitefish
Whitefish is perhaps the most progressive community in the state of Montana in addressing AIS issues. Since 2013, WLI has drafted and implemented a Whitefish AIS Management Plan that the Whitefish City Council has approved and funded. Each year, there are various tasks completed for early detection, monitoring and prevention. Some of these tasks include the Whitefish City Beach Watercraft Inspection Station and early detection monitoring of zebra mussels from environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis. Due to the generosity of the Joe and Cindy Gregory Family (WLI Members), an official watercraft inspection station was constructed at City Beach.

One previous gap for Whitefish Lake had been the lack of a watercraft inspection station at State Park. WLI partnered with Montana State Parks and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) to coordinate and implement a watercraft inspection capability there. Additionally, WLI continues to consult with AIS partners including MFWP, DNRC, University of Montana, and the Conferderated Salish and Kootenai Tribes as we go through the annual planning process. The City of Whitefish Community Services Coordinator, WLI’s Executive Director, and WLI's Science and Education Director also received upper level watercraft inspection and decontamination training. WLI’s annual AIS Management Plan proposal to City Council remains adaptive in addressing the increased threat to our lake and community. In 2017, with funding provided by the Whitefish Community Foundation, WLI purchased a decontamination unit and associated safety equipment.

Since 2011, WLI has also partnered with MFWP to coordinate, administer, and train volunteers for the Northwest Montana Lakes Volunteer Monitoring Network. Through that program, volunteers collect water quality and AIS early detection samples from over 40 lakes in northwest Montana. That early detection sampling includes looking for the microscopic juvenile “veliger” stage of zebra mussels.

Unfortunately, there is no perfect tool or set of tools in our toolbox to totally eliminate the AIS threat to Whitefish Lake. That’s why we need help from the public to clean, drain and dry your watercraft and equipment after each use.

The Beaver Lake Story
Zebra mussels aren’t the only invasive species that can impact Whitefish Lake and our local economy. In October 2011, Eurasian Watermilfoil (EWM) was discovered by the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation near the boat ramp on Beaver Lake near Whitefish.  Beaver Lake is hydrologically connected to Whitefish Lake and there are numerous methods for the plant to be spread from Beaver Lake to Whitefish Lake. An AIS response team—of which WLI was a member—responded to the discovery for further investigation. Bottom barriers were placed over the identified patch and a control/eradication plan was developed by a multiple agency workgroup in which the City of Whitefish and WLI participated. 

If left untreated, EWM forms dense mats of vegetation on the surface of the water that can interfere with recreational activities such as fishing, swimming, and boating, and that threatens the health of the water body. The resulting effect can be the loss of recreational use, decline in ecosystem health, and a decrease in lakefront property values. EWM reproduces successfully and very rapidly and plant fragments can colonize new areas, making it a threat to any water body it invades.

Since 2012, WLI and the City of Whitefish have taken the lead in addressing the EWM issue at Beaver Lake. As part of the Whitefish AIS Management Plan, WLI coordinated a suction dredging operation to eradicate plants. In 2012, 23.5 pounds of EWM was removed. The program has proven successful and in 2018, no plants were found. This atypical AIS success story is the result of very early detection coupled with rapid and aggressive eradication techniques. Because of the real to Whitefish Lake and the watershed, suction dredging will continue indefinitely until there is confidence that the EWM has been eradicated.

See all the organizations who are partnering on the Aquatic Invasive Species efforts.



NEW AIS CROWN OF THE CONTINENT REPORT

  Learn more about 

AVERILL'S VIKING CREEK WETLAND PRESERVE
WLI owns and manages 28.82 acres of important water-cleansing wetlands and wildlife habitat, protecting it from development and enhancing Whitefish's outdoor amenities. It includes 14.7 acres of wetlands and an approximately 9 acre upland area located in the north central corner of the property. The primary function of this wetland is water quality buffering and wildlife habitat. Since Viking Creek—one of Whitefish Lake's six tributaries—and the groundwater of the area drain directly into the lake, water quality buffering is vitally important. The property is bordered on the north and east by the 215-acre Battin Nature Conservancy Easement, affording a large contiguous habitat for wildlife in the urban/wildland interface. This publicly accessible Preserve is an excellent example of how citizens and developers can work together to protect the health of the watershed, to provide open space in the wildland/urban interface, and to allow for economic growth in the community. Find out more about the development of the Preserve by clicking on Brokering a Solution below.

  Brokering a Solution
  Brokering a Solution Wetland Preserve Wildlife Photos

History & Restoration of the Wetland

Importance of Wetlands

LIVING WETLANDS INTERPRETIVE NATURE TRAIL
WLI opened the Living Wetlands Interpretive Nature Trail in the Averill's Viking Creek Wetland Preserve in 2013. The 28.82 acre Preserve was gifted to WLI by the Dan Averill family in 2009 as part of the Viking Creek Development proposal. Our goal in developing this trail and making it available to the public, is to share the history, science, and beauty of the wetland, and to provide a glimpse into the lives of the wildlife with which we share this habitat. The trail offers the closest outdoor natural experience for Whitefish citizens and visitors, extends natural resource education offerings, and enables connectivity to the City of Whitefish bike and pedestrian Path, Crestwood Park, The Lodge at Whitefish Lake, and the Viking Creek subdivision.
 

The main trailhead is located on the east side of Wisconsin Avenue, just south of The Lodge at Whitefish Lake. Satellite trailheads are located at Crestwood Park and behind the Viking Lodge. This wheelchair and stroller friendly trail crosses Viking Creek over three bridges and rises above wetter areas over four wooden boardwalks. There are 14 interpretive stations pointing out natural features of the wetland, and a companion Trail Guide with map that further expands on the interpretation. Six beautifully handcrafted benches are strategically placed along the trail. Each bench was purchased by a community member who dedicated their bench in honor of, or in memory of someone special.

 

 
 
 
click to enlarge TRAIL MAP
INTERPRETIVE STATIONS
A series of artistic and informative trail signs were designed to highlight interesting natural features along the trail and increase visitors' knowledge of wetland ecology. The interpretive signs and companion Trail Guide create and encourage sustainable visitor interaction while educating visitors about the specific functions of this wetland in the Whitefish Lake Watershed.
  AN OUTDOOR CLASSROOM
In addition to hosting daily visitors, WLI also conducts research in the wetland through a partnership with the Whitefish High School Project FREEFLOW, hosts pre-K through 12 classroom visits, and provides senior learning programs at the trail. If you have a group of 10 or more and would like an interpretive tour led by WLI staff, please submit your request to info@whitefishlake.org.
  See pp. 36-37 of "A Teacher's Guide to
Outdoor Education Sites and Programs
in the Flathead Region" for educational
information
.

Click on one of these links for more information

•   Interpretive Native Plant Garden

•   Trail Usage & Closures

•   Community Sponsors

DISCOVERY GUIDE
We are very excited to offer teachers and parents the Living Wetlands Interpretive Nature Trail "Discovery Guide". The Guide includes 16 activities for kids to do while visiting the wetland with their teachers or parents. Developed to meet Montana's fifth grade science curriculum standards, the activities promote individual learning and discovery in the outdoors through fun and engaging projects. Kids have opportunities to participate in scientific discovery and learn how organisms are interrelated in the wetland environment. There are lessons in species identification, opportunities to describe the functions of natural systems, and activities to define a wetland food web. The guide also provides an introduction to field journaling, guiding kids on a journey of viewing the world as young naturalists. There are activities that require writing, drawing, and quiet observing. The guide also pairs with the 14 interpretive signs and six benches that are placed along the trail, leading young citizens on their own adventure to enjoy and discover the wetland. Discovery Guides are provided to Whitefish fifth grade science teachers; they can be downloaded from the WLI website; or they are available from WLI by calling 406.862.4327.

 

BIRD GUIDE
We are pleased to offer our wetland visitors a guide to the bird species that have been identified by sight, song, or sound in the Averill's Viking Creek Wetland Preserve. In addition to birds you may see in the wetland, the Bird Guide lets visitors know what to expect seasonally around the Flathead Lake Watershed. There are full color photos of identified species and a checklist to help you and WLI keep track of sightings. Bird Guides are available at our trailheads; they can be downloaded from the WLI website; or they are available from WLI by calling 406.862.4327.

 

 


Gasoline Constituent Loading and Motorized Watercraft Use Levels in Whitefish Lake
This 2005 study examined potential public health risk from motorized watercraft-caused gasoline constituent loading to shoreline areas used for recreation. WLI analyzed the levels of BTEX (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene), agents known to cause myriad health problems from cancer and birth defects to nervous system, liver and kidney damage. Results found high levels of benzene at City Beach. WLI concluded that the main mechanism for the high levels of benzene was when a boat owner pulls their transom plug on the boat ramp, petroleum effluent enters the lake adjacent to the swimming area. WLI recommended the installation of a catchment system to collect the effluent. The Whitefish City Council approved financing for the project which was completed in 2013.

Lake Usage Data
WLI developed and completed a survey detailing how the children of Whitefish use Whitefish Lake as a recreational resource. WLI surveyed children in grades 4, 8, and 11. With the support of Whitefish Public Schools, WLI achieved a 90% respondent rate of total enrollment. The survey found that 89% of respondents recreated in the lake that year. While fishing was not of great interest to the kids, 87% of them swam in the lake. Of the 87%, 29% claim to have swam twenty days or more. This social survey provided additional data to support the installation of the grate/catchment system at City Beach.

Bigfork Stormwater Project
WLI provided technical assistance to Flathead County and the Bigfork Storm Water Advisory Committee during the Bigfork Storm Water Project. WLI developed and implemented a Sample and Analysis Plan to collect water quality samples before and after storm water infrastructure and treatment devices were installed. WLI presented findings at the 2012 Montana Stormwater Conference, and the 2014 final project report is available here.

Tally Lake
Tally Lake is the second deepest lake in Montana and regionally unique due to its morphometric (size and shape) attributes and chemical input (humic matter) from Star Meadows. Those factors, among others, lead to a severe depletion of dissolved oxygen at depth throughout the calendar year. WLI is the first to monitor Tally Lake from the surface to bottom (445 feet). In 2008, a preliminary study was funded by Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). From 2009 to 2013 work continued via a US Forest Service Resource Advisory Committee grants. From 2014 through the present, research on Tally Lake has been supported by WLI members.

click to view the Tally Lake
3-D animation

Swan Lake
WLI conducted sampling on Swan Lake for the Montana Department of Environmental Quality in 2009. WLI also donated time to collect Hydrolab data and submitted that data to the Swan Ecosystem Center. Work continued from 2010 through 2013 via a combination of contracts with the Swan Lakers, Kootenai Lodge Estates and the Swan Ecosystem Center. WLI has provided a summary report and has presented information at two Swan Lakers Annual Meetings. WLI presented information at two Swan Lakers Annual Meetings, and the 2014 final project report is available here.

Link to report

Blanchard Lake
Blanchard Lake is a warm water lake located about 2 miles south of Whitefish. The lake has relatively shallow depths, and no inflow or outflow of fresh water. Blanchard is broadly vegetated and supports several warm water fish and other aquatic species. WLI maintains two monitoring sites on the lake, where water quality monitoring parameters are collected using a Hydrolab DS5 Sonde. Water chemistry samples are also collected once annually as part of the NWMTLVMN program. Reporting on lake water quality was made to the Friends of Blanchard Lake, a group dedicated to protecting the water quality and natural resources of the lake and its surrounding area.


COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
The Whitefish Lake Institute participates in numerous committees including; Flathead Basin Commission (pending), Flathead Conservation District, Flathead CORE, Flathead Roundtable, Haskill Basin Watershed Group, Montana Watershed Coordination Council, Upper Columbia Conservation Commission, and the Whitefish Climate Action Plan Commission

WLI is a member of the American Water Resources Association, the North American Lake Management Society, and the Whitefish Chamber of Commerce.